Monday, February 25, 2008

The basic pattern of the upper limb is designed so as to create mobility in order for humans to manipulate there environment. The hand which is the major tactile organ of human beings is placed in such a way that it can reach every aspect of the body. It is mainly designed for apprehension.

The upper limb is divided into the following region
1. shoulder region
2. The arm.
3. The forearm
4. The wrist
5. The hand

It is further subdivided into the pectoral region and the scapula region
In between the pectoral region and scapula region is the area known as the Axilla. The bone of the shoulder region is the scapular and clavicle they form the shoulder or pectoral girdle.
1. The joint between the scapular and humerus is the shoulder joint or scapulohumeral joint or glenohumeral joint.
2. Acromioclavicular joint between the economy claviate.
3. The sternoclavicular joint between the sternum and the clavicle.


It is the part of the upper limb lying between the shoulder joint and the elbow joint. The bone of the arm is known as the humerus, its proximal part forms the shoulder joint with the scapular while its distal part with the radius and ulna bones form the elbow joint. The arm is divided into two compartments. The flexor compartment contain and the following muscles.
1. The bicep brachii
2. Brachialis
3. Coracobrachialis
They cause flexion at the shoulder and elbow joints.
The extensor compartment contains the tricep brachii muscle which extends the shoulder and elbow joints.

It is the part of the upper limb that lies between the elbow and the wrist joints. The bones of the forearm include the radius and ulnar bone. The forearm is divided into the flexor compartment and the extensor compartment. The flexor compartment has eight muscles and the extensor compartment has 12 muscles.

It is the transitional area between the forearm and hand, it is made up of eight carpal bones which include the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. The joint in relation to this area include. Inferior radiocarpal, intercarpal and carpometacarpal joint.

It is the main tactile and sensory organ of the upper limb. Its basic design is different from that of other primates and mammals in that it has an inherent ability to grasp object between the thumb and index finger (opposition). The hand comprises of 20 muscles that control the intrinsic movement of the hand, 5 metacarpal and 14 phalanges. It has 2 surfaces: palmer and dorsal surface, it also has 5 digits, which are named from lateral to medial the thumb (pollex), index finger (forefinger), middle finger, ring finger, little finger {digit minimi}. The joints that are in relations to the hand are
Carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, interphallangeal (proximal middle and distal)

No comments: